Today I was asked to perform some Linux server maintenance for an important client. They use Citrix Access Gateway™ (CAG) for remote access to their systems. The plan was to login to the Citrix Access Gateway web interface from Firefox, click the PuTTY icon, let CAG server execute the PuTTY SSH client and display its interface on my Linux desktop via a locally installed ICA client. Once it’s up enter the remote Linux server’s IP and do my job. Unfortunately when I clicked the PuTTY icon things went wrong instantly:
You have not chosen to trust ‘Thawte Server CA’, the issuer of the server’s security certificate.
Aha, now what? Apparently Citrix ICAclient comes with its own set of trusted Certification Authorities. Both Firefox and my system-wide CA list are set to trust Thawte but ICAclient didn’t. After a bit of research I have found the ICAclient’s trusted certificates are stored in
~/ICAClient/linuxx86/keystore/cacerts $ ls -l -r--r--r-- 1 mludvig users 891 2009-06-07 12:00 BTCTRoot.crt -r--r--r-- 1 mludvig users 774 2009-06-07 12:00 Class3PCA_G2_v2.crt -r--r--r-- 1 mludvig users 774 2009-06-07 12:00 Class4PCA_G2_v2.crt -r--r--r-- 1 mludvig users 606 2009-06-07 12:00 GTECTGlobalRoot.crt -r--r--r-- 1 mludvig users 576 2009-06-07 12:00 Pcs3ss_v4.crt -r--r--r-- 1 mludvig users 568 2009-06-07 12:00 SecureServer.crt
That’s a good start. Now find out in what format these certs are — two most common formats are DER (binary format) and PEM (ASCII encoded). Quick check reveals that these files are binary, therefore most likely in DER format. Verify the assumption with
.../cacerts $ openssl x509 -inform der -text -noout -in BTCTRoot.crt Certificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2) Serial Number: 33554617 (0x20000b9) Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption Issuer: C=IE, O=Baltimore, OU=CyberTrust, CN=Baltimore CyberTrust Root [...]
Very good —
openssl was told to open it as DER and gave us a reasonable output, so it’s DER! Now we need to get the Thawte Server CA certificate from somewhere, convert it to DER format and save into this directory. It is almost certain that the Citrix Access Gateway web interface uses the very same SSL certificate that the ICA client complains about. So … grab it from there!
Right click somewhere on the page and select View Page Info — a Page info dialog should pop up. Select the last tab — Security — and then View Certificate
Page info — View Certificate
Certificate Viewer will pop up. Select the second tab — Details. There, in the Certificate Hierarchy tree select to top-most item, Thawte Server CA in our case. Click the Export button at the bottom and save the certificate for example as
Export “Thawte Server CA” certificate
Now the last step on our quest — convert the certificate from PEM format to DER with the help of
openssl and verify that it worked out. Note that we’re still in the ICAclient’s
.../cacerts $ openssl x509 -inform pem -outform der -in ~/ThawteServerCA.pem -out ThawteServerCA.crt .../cacerts $ openssl x509 -inform der -in ThawteServerCA.crt -text -noout Certificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2) Serial Number: 1 (0x1) Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption Issuer: C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting cc, OU=Certification Services Division, CN=Thawte Server CA Subject: C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting cc, OU=Certification Services Division, CN=Thawte Server CA [...]
All right, we’re set to go. Click on the PuTTY icon again and see how far we get.
PuTTY is now starting
Voilà, things look good. A while later PuTTY is up, running on the remote Citrix Access Gateway server, ready to open a SSH connection to the Linux box in the company’s internal network.